A personal representative, named in a will, who administers an estate.
In bankruptcy proceedings, this refers to certain property protected by law from the reach of creditors.
A document or other item introduced as evidence during a trial or hearing.
Removal of a charge, responsibility or duty.
Official and formal erasure of a record or partial contents of a record.
Circumstances which render a crime less aggravated, heinous, or reprehensible than it would otherwise be.
The process by which one state or country surrenders to another state, a person accused or convicted of a crime in the other state.
Specific factors that define a crime which the prosecution must prove beyond a reasonable doubt in order to obtain a conviction.
The power of the government to take private property for public use through condemnation.
All the judges of a court sitting together. Appellate courts can consist of a dozen or more judges, but often they hear cases in panels of three judges. If a case is heard or reheard by the full court, it is heard en banc.
An order by the court telling a person to stop performing a specific act.
A defense to criminal charges alleging that agents of the government induced a person to commit a crime he or she otherwise would not have committed.
The guarantee in the Fourteenth Amendment to the US Constitution that all persons be treated equally by the law. Court decisions have established that this guarantee requires that courts be open to all persons on the same conditions, with like rules of evidence and modes of procedure; that persons be subject to no restrictions in the acquisition of property, the enjoyment of personal liberty, and the pursuit of happiness, which do not generally affect others; that persons are liable to no other or greater burdens than such as are laid upon others, and that no different or greater punishment is enforced against them for a violation of the laws.
The person is requesting a judge to order someone to do or not do something because monetary damages would not adequately remedy the injury suffered.
Generally, justice or fairness. The principle of equity in the legal system is intended to guide a judge in finding a way to achieve a lawful result when legal procedure is inadequate.
The process by which a deceased person's property goes to the state if no heir can be found.
Money or a written instrument such as a deed that, by agreement between two parties, is held by a neutral third party (held in escrow) until all conditions of the agreement are met.
An estate consists of personal property (car, household items, and other tangible items), real property, and intangible property, such as stock certificates and bank accounts, owned in the individual name of a person at the time of the person's death.
Generally, a tax on the privilege of transferring property to others after a person's death. In addition to federal estate taxes, many states have their own estate taxes.
A person's own act, or acceptance of facts, which preclude his or her later making claims to the contrary.
Testimony, or documents, exhibits, and tangible objects that are presented at trial to persuade the fact finder (judge or jury) to decide the case for one side or the other.
Court action taken by one party, without notice to any other party.
The legal procedure in which only one side is represented. It differs from adversary system or adversary proceeding.
Laws that permit conviction and punishment for a lawful act performed before the law was changed and the act made illegal. Ex post facto laws that criminalize an action are prohibited by the US Constitution, but ex post facto laws imposing civil liability may be allowed.
Declarations by either side in a civil or criminal case reserving the right to appeal a judge's ruling upon a motion. Also, in regulatory cases, objections by either side to points made by the other side or to rulings by the agency or one of its hearing officers.
The rule preventing illegally obtained evidence to be used in any trial.
To complete the legal requirements (such as signing before witnesses) that make a will valid. Also, to execute a judgment or decree means to put the final judgment of the court into effect.