The list of cases scheduled for hearing in court.
A crime punishable by death.
The heading on a legal document listing the parties, the court, the case number, and related information.
Law established by previous decisions of appellate courts, particularly the Supreme Court.
The facts that give rise to a lawsuit or a legal claim.
A warning; a note of caution.
A written attestation. 2. An Authorized declaration verifying that an instrument is a true and correct copy of the original.
A means of getting an appellate court to review a lower court's decision. The loser of a case will often ask the appellate court to issue a writ of certiorari, which orders the lower court to convey the record of the case to the appellate court and to certify it as accurate and complete. If an appellate court grants a writ of certiorari, it agrees to take the appeal. This is often referred to as granting cert.
An objection, such as when an attorney objects at a hearing to the seating of a particular person on a civil or criminal jury.
Objection to the seating of a particular juror for a stated reason (usually bias or prejudice for or against one of the parties in the lawsuit). The judge has the discretion to deny the challenge.
A judge's private office. A hearing in chambers takes place in the judge's office outside of the presence of the jury and the public.
Moving a lawsuit or criminal trial to another place for trial.
The judge's instructions to the jury concerning the law that applies to the facts of the case on trial.
Presiding or Administrative Judge in a court.
Evidence that is not based on something a person knows or saw happen. One example is physical evidence, such as fingerprints.
A reference to a source of legal authority. 2. A direction to appear in court, as when a defendant is cited into court, rather than arrested.
Noncriminal cases in which one private individual or business sues another to protect, enforce, or redress private or civil rights.
The rules and process by which a civil case is tried and appealed, including the preparations for trial, the rules of evidence and trial conduct, and the procedure for pursuing appeals.
A lawsuit brought by one or more persons on behalf of a larger group.
Standard of proof commonly used in civil lawsuits and in regulatory agency cases. It governs the amount of proof that must be offered in order for the plaintiff to win the case.
Act of grace or mercy by the President or a governor to ease the consequences of a criminal act, accusation, or conviction. It may take the form of commutation or pardon.
The closing statement, by counsel, to the trier of facts after all parties have concluded their presentation of evidence.
An amendment to a will.
To send a person to prison, asylum, or reformatory by a court order.
Placement of a youth in the care of the city (specifically, the Department of Youth Rehabilitation Services, or DYRS) rather than putting him on probation, after a finding of, or plea to, involvement in a crime.
A body of laws that is based on judicial decisions rather than legislative action.
The reduction of a prison sentence, as from death to life imprisonment.
A legal doctrine by which acts of the opposing parties are compared to determine the percentage of liability of each party, resulting in the reduction of the plaintiff’s recovery proportionally to the plaintiff’s degree of fault. See also contributory negligence.
The party who complains or sues; one who applies to the court for legal redress. Also called the plaintiff.
The legal document that usually begins a civil lawsuit. It states the facts and identifies the action the court is asked to take. 2. Formal written charge that a person has committed a criminal offense.
A form of alternative dispute resolution in which the parties bring their dispute to a neutral third party, who helps lower tensions, improve communications, and explore possible solutions. Conciliation is similar to mediation, but it may be less formal.
Sentences for more than one crime that are to be served at the same time, rather than one after the other. See also cumulative sentences.
The legal process by which the government takes private land for public use, paying the owners a fair price.
Terms by which someone must abide in order to be in the community, rather than secure detention.
Successive sentences, one beginning at the expiration of another, imposed against a person convicted of two or more violations.
An agreement that a youth shall be on probation before a plea or finding of involvement in a crime. The decree is usually six months in length and does not require further hearings, unless requested because the youth is not complying with conditions of release.