Judicial officer exercising some of the functions of a judge. It also refers in a general way to a judge.
Evil doing, ill conduct; the commission of some act that is positively prohibited by law.
An action instituted with intention of injuring the defendant and without probable cause, and which terminates in favor of the person prosecuted.
A writ issued by a court ordering a public official to perform an act.
The unlawful killing of another without intent to kill; either voluntary (upon a sudden impulse); or involuntary (during the commission of an unlawful act not ordinarily expected to result in great bodily harm). See also murder.
A form of alternative dispute resolution in which the parties bring their dispute to a neutral third party, who helps them agree on a settlement.
The "guilty mind" necessary to establish criminal responsibility.
The doctrine that requires police officers to tell a suspect in their custody of his or her constitutional rights before questioning him or her. The doctrine is named after the US Supreme Court case entitled 'Miranda v. Arizona'.
A criminal offense considered less serious than a felony. Misdemeanors generally are punishable by a fine or a limited local jail term, but not by imprisonment in a state penitentiary.
An invalid trial, caused by fundamental error. When a mistrial is declared, the trial must start again from the selection of the jury.
A fact or situation that does not constitute a justification or excuse for an offense but which may be considered as a reason to reduce the degree of blame.
The name of an order in writing, issuing from a court and directing the sheriff or other officer to convey a person to a prison, asylum, or reformatory, and directing the jailer or other appropriate official to receive and safely keep the person until his or her fate shall be determined by due course of law.
A case or point that is not subject to a judicial determination because it involves an abstract question or a pretended controversy that has not yet actually arisen or has already passed. Mootness usually refers to a court's refusal to consider a case because the issue involved has been resolved prior to the court's decision, leaving nothing that would be affected by the court's decision.
Oral or written request made by a party to an action before, during, or after a trial, upon which a court issues a ruling or order.
The unlawful killing of a human being with deliberate intent to kill. Murder in the first degree is characterized by premeditation; murder in the second degree is characterized by a sudden and instantaneous intent to kill or to cause injury without caring whether the injury kills or not.